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Improving Flycatcher Habitat

The following resources have been compiled as part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's southwestern willow flycatcher recovery program. Resources have been arranged by category and link to the actual document where permissions allow and otherwise provide an external link for the journal article.

Improving Flycatcher Habitat

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    U.S. Geological Survey (James Hatten), 2021
    An ArcGIS Online (AGOL) page containing historical and predictive maps develop by the USGS for the southwestern willow flycatcher habitat across the southwestern United States. The model outputs a range of probabilities for suitable and less suitable habitat in 20% probability classes.
     
    U.S. Geological Survey (James Hatten), 2021
    A guide that walks the user through the use of the AGOL-based habitat viewer. User is provided with instructions for changing base map layers, toggling through data layers, utilizing tools to compare different datasets, and locating the metadata for the provided layers. Manual uses screen shots of the AGOL platform to aid in seamless navigation.
     

    Final Report: Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis) Surveys and Habitat Availability Modeling on the Santa Clara River, California, 26 March 2020

                   Hall et al., 2020

                   Report of a project to conduct population surveys for SWFL and YBCU in 2018 and 2019, apply existing habitat models to illustrate and predict past, current, and future habitat suitabilities for these two species, and update and standardize classification and mapping of riparian vegetation to reflect recent conditions along the lower 50 miles of the Santa Clara River.

     
    U.S. Geological Survey (James Hatten), 2016
    Detailed report of the development of a satellite model utilizing flycatcher breeding territory data from six states as well as five years of tamarisk beetle defoliation data from the Lower Virgin River. Change detection showed a large shift in predicted habitat due to drought. A spatially explicit analysis showed a 94% decrease in predicted flycatcher habitat due to beetle defoliation on the Lower Virgin River. However, the model predicts that after beetle defoliation 64% and 45% of habitat will remain in the Lower Colorado and Gila River systems respectively.
     

    Characterization and Prediction of Future Habitat Suitability for Three Bird Species Inhabiting the Rio Grande Bosque, NM (poster)

                   Friggens and Finch, 2013

                   Poster presentation of a maximum entropy (maxent) model to predict future habitat along the Rio Grande for SWFL, yellow-billed cuckoo, and Lucy’ warbler.

     
    York et al., 2011
    A maximum entropy model used to determine the extent of dense tamarisk cover as well as the potential habitat available for SWFL within the project area. 2008 Landsat Thematic Mapper images and a digital elevation model were used as the input variables within the five USGS watershed units flowing into the northern arm of Lake Mead (encompassing the Virgin River). The study determined that tamarisk beetles would like impact available SWFL habitat within the study region in the short term, but could increase available habitat long-term if managed appropriately.
     
    Hatten, et al., 2010
    A model developed utilizing 10 years of flycatcher territory data from Roosevelt Lake, AZ. The GIS model explained 79% of the variability in the flycatcher breeding population at Roosevelt Lake. The model determined a high correlation between reservoir levels and predicted habitat, suggesting that habitat can be created and managed for conservation purposes.

                   Hatten et al., 2007

                   The first large-scale predictive model of its kind for SWFL habitat, this expands on the modeling techniques Hatten developed in 2004 to map potential habitat along a large section of the Upper-Middle Rio Grande.

     
    Dockens and Paradzick (eds.), 2004
    A detailed discussion of the development and testing of a model to predict southwestern willow flycatcher breeding habitat in Arizona, with discussion of the GIS-based model and a case study analysis using the model in Roosevelt Lake.
     
    Hatten and Paradzick, 2003
    A GIS model of SWFL breeding habitat developed from riparian habitat data along portions of the San Pedro, Gila, and Salt Rivers, and Tonto Creek. The best model explained 54% of the variability in breeding-site occurrence and was used to map habitat in Arizona and examine changes in habitat abundance and quality over time.
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    Ecological Genomics Predicts Climate Vulnerability in an Endangered Southwestern Songbird

                   Ruegg et al., 2018

                   A look at the potential for SWFL adaptations to rising temperatures from an ecological genomics perspective. Compared to other willow flycatcher populations results indicate small, fragmented populations of the southwestern willow flycatcher will have to adapt most to keep pace with climate change.

     

    Implications of Climate Change for Bird Conservation in the Southwestern U.S. Under Three Alternative Futures

                   Friggens and Finch, 2015

                   A Maximum Entropy presence-only habitat model developed to look at future climate-based habitat changes (2030, 2060, 2090) in the Rio Grande Corridor in NM for Lucy’s warbler, Southwestern willow flycatcher, and the Western yellow-billed cuckoo. Biophysical characteristics like distance to water proved to be more important than climate in habitat suitability predictions, but climate led to 60% declines of suitable habitat by 2090. For all species, suitable habitat tended to shrink over time within the study area leaving a few core areas of high importance. Overall, climate changes will increase habitat fragmentation and reduce breeding habitat patch size. The best strategy for conserving bird species within the Rio Grande will include measures to maintain and restore critical habitat refugia.

     

    Vulnerability of Species to Climate Change in the Southwest: Threatened, Endangered, and At-Risk Species at Fort Huachuca, Arizona

                   Bagne and Finch, 2013

                   An in-depth System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species modeling effort that looks at two dozen threatened and endangered species and how they may be affected by a changing climate. The authors provide a numerical scale of risk based on possible changes in habitat, physiology, phenology, and interactions across a scale of uncertainties. Results and discussion of the most critical factor for each species are presented.

     

    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) Overview

                   U.S. Forest Service, 2010

                   A brief summary of three separate models run to determine SWFL future vulnerability to habitat change and fire response as well as overall adaptive capacity.

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    Determining Factors of Cottonwood Planting Survival in a Desert River Restoration Project

                   Laub et al., 2019

                   A study that planted 474 trees and measured their growth characteristics for more than a year. Logistic regression was used to evaluate whether tree height, elevation above the river channel, distance to existing cottonwood or coyote willow, soil conductivity, soil texture, planting depth, planting method (mechanical auger vs. hand-digging), and provision of natural and commercial supplements affected survival probability. The authors found that survival probability was greater in auger-dug than hand-dug holes and increased with elevation above the river channel bottom. Survival was lower in sandier soils and in soils with higher salinity.           

     

    Using Conspecific Broadcast for Willow Flycatcher Restoration

                   Schofield et al., 2018

                   A study which utilized broadcasting SWFL vocalizations in suitable but unoccupied habitat in an attempt to attract occupants. Results found that 36% of the unoccupied territories in which they utilized this technique subsequently had willow flycatchers present as opposed to 5% of the control sites. Results demonstrated that this technique could be an effective strategy for restoring SWFL to suitable but unoccupied territories.

     

    Native Species Recovery After Reduction of an Invasive Tree by Biological Control With and Without Active Removal

                   Sher et al., 2018

                   A study which sampled 40 sites over a five-year period to determine changes in tamarisk cover and native plant communities. The researchers found that with or without active removal of tamarisk the native understory increased, though the best response involved active removal of tamarisk without high-disturbance mechanical control. Results showed that reduction of tamarisk cover, even just by biological control leaving some canopy intact, can facilitate the recovery of native plant communities.

     

    Species Introductions and Their Cascading Impacts on Biotic Interactions in Desert Riparian Ecosystems

                   Hultine et al., 2015

                   A paper which looks at the disruption of the mutualistic relationship between Populus spp. and beneficial mychorrhizal fungal communities caused by Tamarix spp. and how this may be affected by tamarisk beetles. The authors postulate that certain genotypes of Populus will respond more favorably to changes in climate and the presence of tamarisk over time, that the continued expansion of beetle populations and increased defoliation will reduce this negative impact of Tamarix but the plants may adapt to episodic defoliation, and riparian land managers should work to identify and conserve the phenotypic traits in Populus that underpin tolerance to climate changes and species invasion.   

     

    Beyond Traditional Ecological Restoration on the Colorado Plateau

                   Winkler et al., 2018

                   An analysis of past restoration projects to determine the best project characteristics for successful future restoration efforts. Authors determined that strong multi-agency and stakeholder partnerships, mitigating for climate change, and the use of genetically diverse seed adapted for current and future conditions are the most important factors for restoration.

     

    Habitat Restoration and Management of Native and Non-native Trees in Southwestern Riparian Ecosystems (presentation)

                   Volke (New Mexico Department of Game and Fish), 2018

                   A PowerPoint presentation provided at RiversEdge West’s Riparian Restoration Conference detailing the resource provided in the next entry, with case studies in New Mexico.

     

    Habitat Restoration and Management of Native and Non-native Trees in Southwestern Riparian Ecosystems

                   New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, 2017

                   A handbook compiling information from various sources and providing general guidance for removing non-native woody vegetation to provide better habitat for native species, focusing on birds.

     

    Case Studies of Riparian and Watershed Restoration in the Southwestern United States—Principles, Challenges, and Successes

                   Ralston and Saar, 2017

                   Proceedings of a three-day workshop convened by the USGS Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center in Flagstaff, AZ in June 2015 to discuss the challenges and successes of riparian restoration projects in the Southwest. This is an excellent compilation of presentations ranging from a planning articles (Rasmussen and Orr; Skidmore) to a climate and genetics (Whitam) to project implementation (Oppenheimer; Grabau; McMaster).

     

    Tamarisk Best Management Practices in Colorado Watersheds

                   Nissen et al. (eds.), 2012

                   Produced by Colorado State University, the University of Denver, the Colorado Department of Agriculture, and the Denver Botanic Gardens, this is a detailed and comprehensive resource for restoring tamarisk-invaded lands in Colorado that can be utilized throughout the Southwest.

     

    Best Management Practices for Revegetation after Tamarisk Removal

                   Sher et al., 2010

                   A comprehensive guide for restoration and revegetation after tamarisk removal. Contains recommendations for planning and implementation, equipment, species lists, monitoring and maintenance, and adaptive management.

     

    Cost/Benefit Considerations for Recent Saltcedar Control, Middle Pecos River, New Mexico

                   Barz et al., 2008

                   An analysis of a very large-scale tamarisk removal project on the Middle Pecos River looking at actual project costs as measured against a valuation of salvaged ET recharged groundwater. The paper focuses on trade-offs under a complete eradication strategy: water salvage vs. erosion and sedimentation within a specific system. Total costs far outweighed benefits in this simple comparison but highlight the need to consider desired outcomes and project purpose in light of overall costs.

     

    Success of Active Revegetation after Tamarix Removal in Riparian Ecosystems of the Southwestern United States: A Quantitative Assessment of Past Restoration Projects

                   Bay and Sher, 2008

                   An analysis of 28 sites where tamarisk had been removed a range of 1-18 years prior and a determination of multiple management techniques and site characteristics that led to restoration success. Results found that proximity to perennial water, recent flooding, good drainage, coarser soils texture, and lower soil pH all favored native species.

     

    Riparian Restoration: Assessment of Alternative Technologies for Tamarisk Control, Biomass Reduction and Revegetation.

                   RiversEdge West (Tamarisk Coalition), 2008

                   Prepared by the RiversEdge West (formerly Tamarisk Coalition) in 2008, this document addresses options for the control, biomass reduction, and revegetation management components. All (in 2008) currently available technologies have been evaluated; however, not all are applicable for a given river location. Tamarisk is the focus but the discussion applies to Russian olive and other invasive trees but may differ slightly for each (e.g., herbicide used).

     

    Planning Riparian Restoration in the Context of Tamarix Control in Western North America

    Shafroth et al., 2008

    A seminal paper in tamarisk restoration that stresses the importance of project planning to include: (1) clearly identifying project goals; (2) developing realistic project objectives based on a detailed evaluation of site conditions; (3) prioritizing and selecting tamarisk control sites with the best chance of ecological recovery; and (4) developing a detailed tactical plan before tamarisk is removed. Post-removal monitoring, maintenance, and adaptive management are also highlighted as crucial for evaluating project success and efficacious restoration methods.

     

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    Bureau of Reclamation (Moore and Ahlers), March 2018
     
    A detailed analysis and discussion of flycatcher distribution and nesting along the Lower Rio Grande in New Mexico and Texas. Report notes the monitoring of 68 territories with 41 nests successfully fledging young.
     
     

    2017 Middle Rio Grande Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Study Results: Selected Sites along the Rio Grande from Bandelier National Monument to Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico

    Bureau of Reclamation (Moore and Ahlers), January 2018
     
    A detailed analysis and discussion of flycatcher distribution and nesting along the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico. Monitoring found a 15% decrease in territories, finding 302 territories containing 561 residents with an overall nesting success of 26%. Report notes that drought has led to increased dominance of tamarisk in the reach and thus increased use of lesser-quality tamarisk habitat for nesting.
     
    2015 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2015
     
    Survey results and discussion of eleven flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    2014 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2014
     
    Survey results and discussion of thirteen flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) Surveys and Nest Monitoring at the upper San Luis Rey River, San Diego County Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Final Report, 2014
    Clark, et. al, February 2014
     
    Report discussing the status of the largest SWFL population in California, along the San Luis Rey River. Though limited parasitism was observed, trapping of brown-headed cowbirds was attempted and the report discusses that effort.
     
     
    2013 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2013
     
    Survey results and discussion of seven flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    Surveying for Southwestern Willow Flycatchers in Grand Canyon National Park, 2010-2012
    National Park Service, August 2013
     
    Survey and analysis of the declining SWFL population in the Grand after the arrival of the beetle.
     
     
    Status, Reproductive Success, and Habitat Use of Southwestern Willow Flycatchers on the Virgin River, Utah, 2008-2011
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, December 2012
     
    A detailed report chronicling the status of the Virgin River SWFL population at the height of the initial tamarisk beetle population arrival and spread.
     
     
    2012 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Survey Results Orilla Verde Recreation Area and La Cienega Sites, New Mexico
    Bureau of Reclamation, September 2012
     
    During the summer of 2012, presence/absence surveys along approximately 9.2 kilometers of riparian corridor within the Rio Grande and Santa Fe River basins in northern New Mexico were conducted. Four migrant Willow Flycatchers were documented at the La Cienga site and none were found within the Orilla Verde Recreation site. No endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatchers were observed at either site.
     
     
    2012 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2012
     
    Survey results and discussion of ten flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Surveys and Nest Monitoring Along the Gila River Between Coolidge Dam and South Butte, 2011
    Graber, et al., January 2012
     
    A detailed analysis and discussion of flycatcher distribution and nesting along the Gila River in Arizona in 2011. Monitoring detected 183 pairs with 274 nesting attempts at 27 sites. Of the monitored nests with known outcomes, 36% were successful with an estimated 159 young fledged. Report notes that increased streamflow in late spring the previous year had the strongest relationship to increased territories the following year.
     
     
    2011 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2011
     
    Survey results and discussion of ten flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    2010 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2010
     
    Survey results and discussion of ten flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    Virgin River Resource Management Recovery Program 2009 Annual Report: 2009 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Nest Monitoring Study
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, 2010
     
    A short summary report of monitoring results and recommendations for population management after the arrival of tamarisk beetle into the system.
     
     
    2007 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Study Results: Selected Sites along the Rio Grande from Velarde to Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico
    Bureau of Reclamation, May 2008
     
    A detailed analysis and discussion of flycatcher distribution and nesting along the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico. Report notes the monitoring of 232 territories successfully fledging 315 young.
     
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Final Survey and Nest Monitoring Report
    Arizona Game and Fish Department. February 2008
     
    A compilation of 10 years of survey data on Arizona populations of SWFL in the Salt River, Tonto Creek, Gila River, and San Pedro River study areas. 75% of nest were found in tamarisk but there was no significant differences in nest success in native, nonnative, and mixed habitats. “Observations at AGFD study areas demonstrate that the presence of flowing water, standing water, and saturated soil along lakes, rivers, and streams in the Southwest are important for flycatcher habitat growth and maintenance. Further, the presence of water can positively influence flycatcher recruitment and occupancy.”
     
     
    Status, Distribution, Life-history, and Habitat Affinities of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Along the Lower Colorado River – Year 7 – 2002: Final Report – Revised
    Bureau of Reclamation, January 2006
     
    Expansive report with dozens of tables and figures discussing the population of SWFL along the Lower Colorado River in great detail.
     
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary – 2004
    Sogge, et al., December 2005
     
    A comprehensive article discussing the SWFL population across its entire range.
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher and Yellow-billed Cuckoo Surveys on Spur Land and Cattle Company Property, Camp Verde, AZ - 2004
    Sogge, et al., 2004
     
    Surveys finding one migrant flycatcher (subspecies unknown) and one SWFL breeding territory. A total of five YBC were detected.
     
     
    Distribution and Abundance of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher at Selected Southern California Sites in 2001 – Final Report
    Rourke, et al., 2004
     
    A detailed analysis to document flycatcher distribution and abundance at 20 sites on 15 drainages in southern California in 2001. Surveys located 21 breeding pairs which when combined with other survey data suggest 146 pairs in California, a doubling of the population since 1993.
     
     
    Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) Surveys in the Colorado River Delta: Implications for Management
    Hernandez, et al., 2001
     
    Article documenting the population of SWFL in the Colorado River Delta in Mexico and discussing the need for future restoration of sites to maintain the species.
     
     
     

Current Research

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    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Habitat Viewer

                   U.S. Geological Survey (James Hatten), 2021

                   An ArcGIS Online (AGOL) page containing historical and predictive maps develop by the USGS for the southwestern willow flycatcher habitat across the southwestern United States. The model outputs a range of probabilities for suitable and less suitable habitat in 20% probability classes.

     

    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Habitat Viewer User's Manual 

                   U.S. Geological Survey (James Hatten), 2021

                   A guide that walks the user through the use of the AGOL-based habitat viewer. User is provided with instructions for changing base map layers, toggling through data layers, utilizing tools to compare different datasets, and locating the metadata for the provided layers. Manual uses screen shots of the AGOL platform to aid in seamless navigation.

     

    Variation in Salinity Tolerance and Water Use Strategies in an Introduced Woody Halophyte (Tamarix spp.)

                   Long et al., 2021

                   A study subjecting tamarisk from two distinct populations originating from areas with greatly varying soil salinities to a range of different salinities. Results showed dramatic differences between growth with the low salinity population accumulating 72% more biomass when grown at 4 ppt compared to 16 ppt, while the high salinity population produced 50% more biomass when grown at 16 ppt. Additionally, the high salinity population had a lower turgor loss point and exhibited greater stomatal control relative to the low salinity population. These results of local adaptation to increased salinity could have implications for continued tamarisk dominance in aridland riparian ecosystems where drought or water management may lead to increased soil salinities.  

     

    Plastic Responses to Hot Temperatures Homogenize Riparian Leaf Litter, Speed Decomposition, and Reduce Detritivores

                   Jeplawy et al., 2021

                   A common garden study of six distinct Fremont cottonwood populations across an elevation gradient and covering a range of genomic variation to determine responses to different heat conditions. The common gardens had mean annual temperatures of 11, 17, and 23°C and all received regular watering throughout the growing season. Results found that all genotypes in the hottest garden produced comparatively small leaves that decomposed quickly and supported lower abundances of aquatic invertebrates, whereas the same genotypes in the coldest garden produced litter with distinct morphologies and decomposition rates.

     

    Invasive Tree Cover Covaries with Environmental Factors to Explain the Functional Composition of Riparian Plant Communities

                   Henry et al., 2021

                   This study employs functional diversity metrics and guilds—suites of species with similar traits—to assess the influence of an invasive tree (Tamarix spp.) on riparian plant communities in the southwestern United States. Nine distinct guilds were identified with a gradient of functional diversity related to both tamarisk cover and environmental conditions. The identified guilds can be correlated to specific site conditions and can be used to anticipate plant community response to restoration efforts and in selecting appropriate species for revegetation.

     

    Spenders Versus Savers: Climate-induced Carbon Allocation Trade-offs in a Recently Introduced Woody Plant

                   Long et al., 2021

                   Researchers looked at non-structural carbohydrate storage in different genotypes of Tamarix from an experimental common garden. Results suggest that Tamarix from colder locations cope with freeze events by maintaining large storage pools to support tissue regrowth, but with the trade-off of overall reduced growth and reproduction.

     

    Adaptive Versus Non-adaptive Responses to Drought in a Non-native Riparian Tree / Shrub, Tamarix spp.

                   Bush et al., 2021

                   A common garden experiment to compare the stomatal sensitivity, sap flux, and canopy transpiration of different tamarisk populations. Results showed that higher-elevation tamarisk populations that are adapted to freezing tolerated drought conditions much better than low-elevation populations. Root area to leaf area ratios were also higher in the highest elevation population. Results indicate that rapid changes in ecohydrologic conditions may result in some Tamarix populations becoming maladapted sooner to reductions in available water than others in the western US

     

    Bridging the Research-implementation Gap in Avian Conservation with Translational Ecology

                   Saunders et al., 2021

                   An insightful look at several case studies from conservation practitioners and ornithological social scientists to highlight six core principles of translational ecology - an intentional approach in which researchers and practitioners from multiple disciplines collaborate on conservation management. The authors demonstrate how implementing collaboration, engagement, communication, commitment, process, and decision-framing can lead to improved conservation decision-making and delivery of outcomes applicable to specific management decisions. Finally, they recommend strategies for building a stronger translational ecology culture to further improve the integration of these principles into avian conservation decisions.

     

    Salinity Driven Interactions Between Plant Growth and a Biological Control Agent

    Long et al., 2021

    A two-part study looking at how changes in soil salinity affect tamarisk growth and how beetle-induced defoliation affects tamarisk growing in soils with different salinities. Results showed that tamarisk plants grow better in soils with a similar salinity to their own origin site and that lower salinity does not benefit tamarisk plants adapted to higher saline conditions. Tamarisk beetles caused a significantly greater reduction in total biomass in the high salinity plants than the low salinity ones (averages of 63% and 32% respectively), likely due to increased water stress and reduced resources to enable regrowth. Although plants compensated for herbivory by regrowing foliage over three defoliation events and maintained similar leaf biomass through regrowth, they ultimately had a reduced basal area and 62% lower root biomass compared to the controls. Thus, herbivory caused a shift in plant allocation of resources from overall growth to compensation, reducing root and stem investment.

     

    Riparian Plant Communities Remain Stable in Response to a Second Cycle of Tamarix Biocontrol Defoliation

                   Gonzalez et al., 2020

                   A look at beetle-occupied tamarisk sites 11-13 years after initial occupancy to determine long-term vegetative community response. Study found that Tamarix cover across sites initially declined an average of ca. 50% in response to the beetle, but then recovered. Changes in the associated plant community were small but supported common management goals, including a 47% average increase in cover of a native shrub (Salix exigua), and no secondary invasions by other non-native plants.

     

    An Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile from Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) Is Repellent to Diorhabda carinulata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

                   Gaffke et al., 2020

                   Development of a novel repellant compound for the potential management of tamarisk beetle, specifically the Northern species. Repellant has been shown to be effective on reproductive adults and alter the behaviors of 1st and 2nd instar larvae. Continued development and field deployment of this repellent compound may provide a new tool for the management of D. carinulata.

     

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